A collaborative pianist who specializes in working with young violinists has emailed me with a sequence in which violin students traditionally learn the concertos, in this person's experience:
1. Bach a minor
3. Mozart 3, 4, or 5
6. Barber, Saint-Saens 3, Mendelssohn, or Wieniawski 2
7. Sibelius or Tchaikovsky
That order mostly jives with my experience, although the studios I've played for usually start with either Spohr or one of the Mozarts. I would also add the Shostakovich after Sibelius and Tchaikovsky, although I object to giving that concerto to most teenagers (which more violin teachers seem to be doing these days) because of its extreme technical and artistic demands.
Any violin concertos you would add to the early or latter stages of the list?